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Sanganeb is a huge coral atoll located further offshore (> 25 km) arising from a steep sea-floor (> 800 m) forming one of the most famous and unique oceanic atoll in the Red Sea and marked by a British built lighthouse. From far you can see the 50m lighthouse which was built between 1956 and 1964. Being here you really should climb the 268 steps and enjoy the view you can catch of this magnificent reef. The lighthouse has been renovated since 1998 and sun collectors and current replace the old methods now. Sanganeb is protected underwater park since 1990…

Sanganeb Sanganeb

Coral (Cnidaria)

The highest living cover and corals diversity occur in the central Red Sea where the Sudanese coast is located. Corals identified in the Sudanese Red Sea may exceed 200 species from more than 35 genera which indicates relatively high level of coral diversity and endemism.  Most common corals species include: Acropora spp, Pocillophora sp, Porites spp, favites spp, Stylophora ssp, Galaxia spp, Millipora spp, Fungia spp, Turbinaria spp, Platygyra spp., Xenia spp, and Gorganin spp fans.

Coral (Cnidaria) Coral (Cnidaria)


Mangroves are considered as conspicuous coastal vegetation constituting the characteristic tropical feature of the Sudanese Red Sea coast. They are located (as stands or patches) along the coastline, around bays or sharms as well as several offshore islands being more extensive and prolific in the southern parts of the coast. Among the three mangrove species that were previously reported in the Sudanese coast (Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata,& Brguiera gymnorhiza ). Avicennia marina is the only predominat species.

Mangroves Mangroves


These salt tolerant plants form a prominent feature of coastal vegetation, in the Sudanese coast, characteristic of arid zones. Various types of halophytes (ephemerals, annuals & perennials) of different sizes (≤ 2.0 –60 cm high) occur just above the coastline (supralittoral zone), fringing much of the coast (1 – 3m wide) with varying densities. Their growth becomes more prolific and dense in the southern parts of the coast than in its northern parts where the coastal plain tends to be narrower and the rainfall gets relatively scarce.

Halophytes Halophytes

Ornamental fishes (fancy fishes)

  Over 240 species belonging to about 26 families of ornamental fishes have been recognized in the Sudanese Red Sea. These demersal fishes are considered the most important component in the reefs fish community structure and as potentials in the flourishing aquarium fish trade.  Numerous species of Angelfish, Butterfly fish, Damsel fishes, Sweetlips Emperos & Parrot fishes are among the most common types encountered in the area that exhibit a high degree of endemism.

Ornamental fishes (fancy fishes) Ornamental fishes (fancy fishes)

Molluscs (Mollusca)

Over 250 species of shell molluscs (snails, oysters, limpets, clams & mussels) have been identified and assessed in the Sudanese Red Sea. Trochus spp. :  Trochus dentatus is considered the most dominant species encountered along the coast.  Mother of pearl oysters: Pinctada margaralitifera of wide occurrence and abundance along the Sudanese shallow coastal waters, particularly at the northern coast. Other shells: i. e. Stormbus (S. tricornis), Lambia sp. (Snails) and Tridacna (giant clam) are also commercial & of ecological value. Stormbus spp.  are also collected for their opercula (Dufra) which are sold as important ingredients for special  locally made perfume …

Molluscs (Mollusca) Molluscs (Mollusca)

Sea cucmbers

 About 9 species of sea cucumber have been reported in the Sudanese coastal water including mainly: Holothuria spp (6), Actinopyga spp. (2), and Thelenota sp. (1). Sea cucumbers fishing (or collecting) has started since more than three decades, on commercial basis, for export. The population stocks of these ecologically and potentially important resources showed significant decline which attributed to over exploitation

Sea cucmbers Sea cucmbers

The Dissolved Oxygen

    The dissolved oxygen concentration in the surface water of the Red Sea is close to saturation concentration, which is in the range of 4.8 to 6.5 ml of oxygen per liter sea water (ml l-1) depending on the temperature and the salinity. The saturated layer extends in general to about 100 m depth, but in the shallower Gulf of Suez it extends to the bottom. Below the saturated layer in the Red Sea, there is a layer of minimum dissolved oxygen concentration (10-25 %) which corresponds to the oldest water in the Red Sea, and below this layer…

The Dissolved Oxygen The Dissolved Oxygen


Sea surface salinity (SSS) increased from about 36 in Bab Al Mandab to about 41 in the north as a result of net evaporation. Salinity was increasing with depth to a maximum value of about 40.5.

Salinity Salinity


  Sea surface temperature (SST) ranged from 26°C in the north to 30.5°C between 15°N and 20°N. Three distinct temperature regimes were observed; Bab Al Mandab strait where relatively cold Gulf of Aden water enters into the Red Sea, the center of the Red Sea which showed the highest SST due to wind convergence, and the northern part which showed relatively low SST due to net evaporation. The vertical distribution showed temperatures decreasing from surface to deep water, with an intermediate water temperature between 22°C and 26°C and a deep water temperature of 21.5°C.

Temperature Temperature

Recent Projects

National Environmental Monitoring Program
Tuesday, 21 February 2012
Implementation of a national environmental monitoring program in the Sudanese Red (at a wider scale) as an integrated part of the regional... Read more...


Signing the contract to design a website for IMR
Tuesday, 21 February 2012
A contract has just been singed with Millennium for Technology & Services Co. Ltd in order to establish the web site for IMR/RSU. Photo: Prof.... Read more...

About IMR

The significance of coastal and marine resources in the Sudanese Red Sea coast and the vital role they can play in the socio – economic development has been recognized earlier by ...More

About Red Sea

The Red Sea is an important international water body that separates the north-eastern Africa from the Arabian Peninsula. It has since ancient times been a source of food for the ... More

Contact Us

Red Sea University ( RSU )
Institute of Marine Research ( IMR )
P.O.Box 24
Port Sudan - Sudan
Tel : 249-311-822509
Fax : 249-311-827778
Email :